The Roman Republic
The Roman Republic began once the Romans overthrew the Etruscans in 509 BC. The Roman Republic established a form of government in which citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf. The aristocracy, who were the wealthy class, dominated the early Roman Republic. All the power laid in the hands of the Senate, but the senators were constantly fighting for power between themselves. Order gave way to anarchy, which led to political fights, murders, and chaos during this timeframe. The Roman Republic survived until 27 BC when Rome was transformed from a republic into an empire, with one emperor.
Coinage came late to the Republic when compared to the rest of the Mediterranean and most coinage from this timeframe was comprised of silver and bronze. Starting with Julius Caesar, designs on coinage started bearing the ruler's own portrait which served as political propaganda to let the conquered lands far and wide know who their leaders were.